Centrioles are cylindrical-shaped organelles located in the cytoplasm of animal cells. They help the plant during cell division, and it determines the location of the nucleus and organelles within the cells. We know that animal cells have centrioles, but do plant cells too have centrioles?
Do plant cells have centrioles?
No, generally plant cells don’t have centrioles. Centrioles are absent in plants of higher order as they don’t use centrioles for cell division. However, the centrioles are present in some plants of the lower order. The plants of lower order consist of Chlamydomonas, mosses, and ferns which form the centrioles during spermatogenesis. Centriole essentially helps in the division of the cells and helps the plant form new cells. It is the primary function of the centriole.
Structure of Centrioles
Centrioles are composed of 9 sets of short microtubules which are arranged in a cylinder. It also consists of additional proteins like centrin and calnexin. Centrioles are generally found in eukaryotic cells.
In plants, the centrioles are found in the base of the structure and are called basal bodies. Centrioles, along with a cloud of protein material called the pericentriolar material (PCM), together form the centrosome.
Function of Centrioles
Unlike in animals, centriole occurs as a single body in plants. It is generally found in the base of the plant cell. Together with the pericentriolar material, it makes up most of the insides of the plant cell.
The function of the centriole is to carry out the mechanical aspects of their movement. It also helps the plant carry out cell division. However, in plant cells, the centrioles play a minor role in cell division.
Cell division in Plants
The cells of the plants of the higher-order divide by creating a cell wall between the daughter nuclei after mitosis. It is very important for the growth of new tissues in the plant.
Initially, the phragmoplast forms in the middle of the cell and guides the transport of materials within the cell. Tiny bubbles transport the materials required for the building of the cell wall. Then the materials are assembled to form a larger structure called the cell plate. The cell plate then continues to grow until a cell wall completely separates the daughter cells from one another. Eventually, the cells are separated, and new cells are formed. It is how cell division in plants of the higher-order takes place.
So, we can see that plants of the higher order do not contain centrioles. Centrioles are only present in plants of the lower order like Chlamydomonas.
Unlike animals, plants of the higher-order use cell walls to divide the cells and form new cells. It is because plant cells have structures that are different from animal cells.
Plants of the higher order can carry out the process of cell division even in the absence of the centrioles. However, the role of centrioles in plant cells is an unexplored subject. Due to a lack of proper evidence, the true function of the centrioles remains a mystery.